turn by his son Gopala II. The rule of these two rulers proved disastrous for
Pala power. A series of invasions led by the Chandellas and the Kalachuris
dismembered the Pala empire.
    The fortune of the Palas which reached its lowest ebb was recovered to
some extent by Mahipala I, who ascended the throne in AD 98. The most
important event of Mahipala’s reign was the invasion of Bengal by Rajendra
Chola. Rajendra’s Tirumalai Inscription records the details of his conquests
in the north. The Chola invasion, however, did not lead to the establishment
of Chola suzerainty over Bengal. Apart from north and east Bengal, Mahipala
was able to recover the northern part of the Burdwan division. Mahipala’s
success was more pronounced in north and south Bihar. He succeeded in
reestablishing his authority over a great part of Bengal. This success was due
in a large measure to the repeated invasions of Sultan Mahmud which must
have exhausted the strength and resources of the Rajput powers in northern
India. Madanapala was the last king of the Pala dynasty.
Early Rulers
The Sena family ruled Bengal after the Palas. Its founder was Samantasena
described as ‘Brahmakshatriya’. The title Brahmakshatriya shows that
Samantasena was a Brahmin, but his successors called themselves simply
Kshatriyas. Samantasena’s son Hemantasena took advantage of the unstable
political situation of Bengal and carved out an independent principality.
Vijayasena The son of Hemantasena, Vijayasena brought the family into
limelight during his long reign of more than sixty years. Beginning his career
as a petty chief, Vijayasena laid the foundations of the greatness of his family
by conquering nearly the whole of Bengal.
    Vijayasena assumed several imperial titles like paramesvara,
paramabhattaraka. maharajadhiraja, and the like. He had two capitals, one
at Vijayapuri in West Bengal and another at Vikramapura in Bangladesh. The
famous poet Sriharsha composed the Vijayaprasasti in memory of
Ballalasena Vijayasena was succeeded by his son, Ballatasena. His reign
was generally peaceful and he      maintained in tact the dominions inherited