thousands of peoples and places that seem to come from nowhere as they
appear in the historical record for the first time.
Socio-Economic Background
The social environments that developed in medieval domains were based in
relatively stable economic areas, and major dynasties had an average lifespan
of more than 300 years, compared to 135 and 230 years, respectively, for the
Mauryas and Guptas. The secret of their success lay in the central role that
dynasties played in building social systems to organise physical and spiritual
power. Dynasties facilitated creative interactions among people involved in
mobile and sedentary ways of life, in places where local elites dominated
villages and towns that also served itinerant merchants, warriors, craftsmen,
and pilgrims. As a result, dynasties became cultural symbols of tradition in
cultural territories that became basis of many modern social identities. New
forms and groups of social identity came into being during the long period of
historical innovation. Its ingenuity was concentrated in compact domains of
dynastic authority where kings allied with local elites to direct the course of
social change.
                  KALEIDOSCOPIC GEOPOLITICS
  Most new dynasties that sprang up in the first millennium developed in
  places where long trade routes crossed fertile valleys and deltas. In
  Punjab, they dotted the foothills. They multiplied along the rivers Ganga,
  Narmada, Tapti, Sabarmati, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Pennar, Kaveri
  and Vaigai. In the peninsula, they thrived most of all, in the delta areas of
  rivers. Any map that depicts the details of political geography in medieval
  times looks kaleidoscopic, because the extent of dynastic territories
  changed often.
Dynastic Core Regions
Early medieval kingdoms arose from the power of social groups in dynastic
core regions. These domains were smaller than ancient empires but in total,