of Vaishyas and advance of Sudras.
Assertion (A): There were no restrictions on any caste to take any profession
in the late ancient period.
Reason (R): The doctrine of apad-dharma permitted persons belonging to one
class to follow the profession of another class.
Assertion (A): Adultery was among the lesser sins and if an adulterous wife
underwent penance, she regained her status.
Reason (R): Adultery was very common in ancient India.
Assertion (A): The traditional varna divisions were coming gradually to lose
their former significance.
Reason (R): Man’s social status came to be increasingly decided by his
Assertion (A): Women in the Gupta age were not disqualified from the
exercise of public rights.
Reason (R): The custom of sati, especially among the ruling families, was
coming into general use.
Assertion (A): The wife, who belonged to the same caste as her husband,
enjoyed special privileges.
Reason (R): The first marriage of a man usually took place with a girl of the
same caste.
Assertion (A): In most parts of ancient India, a clear distinction was
maintained between land and trade as sources of income, and land was
regarded as a superior source.
Reason (R): The risks involved in the transportation of goods even within the
subcontinent were great, but income from landed property was quite secure.
Assertion (A): Polygamy was more commonly practised by the lower castes
than the upper castes in ancient India.
Reason (R): The upper castes had a large share in the social surplus than the
lower castes during the period.