of the miniature paintings of India comprises of the ragas of Indian classical
music. There were a number of miniature schools in the country, including
those of Mughals, Rajputs and the Deccan.
Pala School The earliest instances of the Indian miniature painting are
those related to the Pala School and date back to the 11th century. The
symbolic use of colour in the paintings emphasized by this school, was taken
from tantric ritual. The other characteristics of the Pala School include the
use of a skillful and graceful line, modeling forms by delicate and expressive
variation of pressure, use of natural colour for painting human skin, etc.
Jain School Great emphasis on style was the hallmark of the Jain school of
miniature paintings. The unique features of this school include strong and
pure colours, stylish figures of women, heavy gold outlines, diminution of
dress to angular segments, enlarged eyes and square-shaped hands. The
influence of Jain miniature paintings can be seen on Rajasthani and Mughal
paintings also.
Mughal Painting
Features Mughal paintings reflect an exclusive fusion of Indian, Persian
and Islamic styles. As the name suggests, these paintings evolved as well as
developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India, between 16th and
19th centuries. The Mughal paintings of India revolved around themes, like
battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife,
portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a large and
impressive collection of Mughal paintings.
Origins Mughal Emperor Humayun (1530–1540) patronized Indian
Mughal paintings in a big way during his rule. Therefore, it is considered to
be period of origin of the Mughal paintings. When he came back to India
from the exile, he also brought along two excellent Persian artists, Mir-
Sayyid Ali and Abd-us-samad. With time, their art got influenced by the local
styles and vice-versa, and gradually it gave rise to the Mughal painting. The
earliest example of the Mughal style is the Tutinama ("Tales of a Parrot")
Painting, now in the Cleveland Museum of Art. Then, there is the "Princess of
the House of Timur", a painting redone numerous times.