Charana: The final (and longest)    verse to wrap up the song. The Charanam
    This kind of song is called a keerthanam or a kriti. There are other
possible structures for a kriti, which may, in addition to the three above,
include swara passages named chittaswara. A chittaswara consists only of
notes, and has no words. Still others have a verse at the end of the charana,
called the madhyamakāla. It is sung at double speed immediately after the
Similarities and Differences between "Hindustani" and
"Carnatic" music
Although there are many similarities between the Hindustani and Carnatic
music, there are a few differentiating features also. Both the styles are
monophonic, follow a melodic line and employ a drone (tanpura) with the
help of one or two notes against the melody. Definite scales are adopted by
both the styles to define a raga but the Carnatic style employs srutis or
semitones to create a raga and thus have many more ragas than the
Hindustani style. Carnatic ragas more or less differ from Hindustani ragas,
with their names also different in Hindustani and Carnatic music. However,
there are some ragas in Carnatic music which have the same scale as
Hindustani ragas but have different names; such as Hindolam and Malkauns,
Shankarabharanam and Bilawal. There is a third category of ragas like
Hamsadhwani, Charukeshi, Kalavati, etc. that are essentially Carnatic Ragas.
They have the same name, follow the same scale (having same set of notes)
but can be rendered in the two distinctively different Carnatic and Hindustani
styles. Unlike Hindustani music, Carnatic music does not adhere to time or
samay concepts. Furthermore, instead of thaats, Carnatic music follows the
Melakarta concept.
Instrumental Music
While it is difficult to precisely say when exactly the early musical
instruments came into existence in India, but they find mention in several
ancient texts like the Upanishads, Samhitas, Valmiki"s Ramayana, Bhagwad
Gita and the Sangam classics. Many of the instruments mentioned in these
texts date back to 5000 BC. It is most likely and widely believed also that the
Dhanuryantram (bow and arrow),        used by primitive tribes for hunting and