Yaman Kalyan                     Yamuna Kalyani
The Concept of Thala Thala, which is the other pillar of Indian classical
music, defines the rhythmical groupings of beats. These rhythmic cycles
range from three to 108 beats. Thala, which follows the same principle in
Hindustani and Carnatic music, though the names and styles differ, is
actually the theory of time measure. Music and thala are different and the
thala does not dependent on the music it accompanies. Thala moves in bars,
and each beat in it is divided into the smallest fraction. Thala is the most
important aspect of classical music, and it forms the very basis or pulse of
music, because it renders rhythm to the music and brings out the cyclic
pattern of rhythm in the music. Hence it is never soothing to the ears if a
music does not follow a thala. Different known thalas are recognised like
Dadra, Rupak, Jhaptal, Ektal, Adha-Chautal and Teen-Tal. Although in
theory there exists over a 100 thalas, but only 30 thalas are familiar and out
of these, only about 10 to 12 thalas are actually used. Teen-taal has sixteen
beats and is the most commonly encountered thala. There are two other
parameters. The laya is the tempo, which keeps the uniformity of time span.
The matra is the smallest unit of the thala.
    Unlike Hindustani, Carnatic music has a rigid thala structure. The
definition of various thalas is based on intricate arithmetic calculations.
Thalas occur in cyclic pattern, and this cyclic pattern decides the three basic
units that the thalas are made up of, namely, laghu, drutam and anu drutam.
The most common thala consisting of a repeating measure of eight beats is
the Adi (first, foremost) thala. The association of thalas with moods is
something similar to what we found in case of the ragas. Here is the popular
mapping between the thalas and the moods: chatusram – devotional and
happy times; tisram – festivity; khandam – anger or frustration; misram –
romantic and joyous; and sangeernam – confusion.
Hindustani Music
There are 10 main forms of styles of singing and compositions in Hindustani
classical music. These are: dhrupad, dhamar, hori, khayal, tappa, chaturang,
ragasagar, tarana, sargam and thumri. Ghazals have become very popular in