hand on her hips, arms loaded with bangles, and having half-closed large
eyes. Another figure of comparable size was also found in Mohenjodaro. A
few good examples of the skill in casting and bronze works are the little
models of bullock-carts and ikkas from Harappa and Chanhudaro, and four
statues of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot, each weighing about 60
kg, from Daimabad of Harappa.
Early Historical Period
The next group of extant sculptures belongs to the Mauryan period. As metal
and stone came to be used, many of the human, animal and other sculptural
motifs of the Mauryan and following ages are still extant. These are primarily
religious in character. Besides animal figures on the capitals of Asokan
pillars, there are figures in high and low relief resting on the abacuses. In the
succeeding phase, there occur bas-relief carvings on sections of the railings
and gateways of the Buddhist stupas at Bharhut, Sanchi, etc., and on the
facade and interiors of the rock-cut cave temples of Eastern and Western
India. The bull capital on the Rampurwa pillar shows a highly developed
tectonic quality reminiscent of the modelling of the animal figurines of the
Harappan seals. There is some similarity between Indian and Persian or
Perso-Hellenic art forms; for Indian sculpture had been influenced by the
artistic tradition of West Asia.
    The free-standing stone sculptures of the post-Mauryan period found in
Northern India have basic similarities, though they mark different stages of
development in the sculptural art. Several have been discovered at Parkham
(near Mathura), Besnagar and Pawaya (Madhya Pradesh), and Lohanipur,
Didarganj and Patna in Bihar. On the analogy of the inscribed statue of
Manibhadra Yaksha found at Pawaya, the other sculptures have justifiably
been identified as images of Yakshas and Yakshinis, the objects of worship in
folk-religion. It was mainly the cult images and their accompaniments that set
the standards of plastic modelling in ancient and medieval India.
Image-worship The practice of making images of various deities for
worship was apparently not in vogue among the higher orders of the Indo-
Aryans of the early Vedic period. But it is very much likely that image-
worship was present among the