perishable, like wood and clay, and rarely of a lasting nature like stone and
bronze. As wood does not last for long, no early wooden figures have been
found. But clay figurines burnt in fire have been discovered in large numbers
and they represent the early attempts of Indian sculptors in the field of plastic
modelling and composition. Artistic activity turned soon to the use of non-
perishable materials like stone and bronze. Numerous terracotta figurines and
a few stone and bronze figures of the Harappan sites testify to the gradually
advancing skill and efficiency of the Indian sculptors of those days.
    A large number of terracotta figurines in Harappa are found either in the
form of toys or cult objects, and sometimes as both of them. These figurines
include birds and animals, like monkeys, dogs, sheep and cattle. While most
of them are hand-modelled, a few pieces are also made in a single mould.
Among other animal figurines found, humped and humpless bulls are worth
mentioning. The great humpless bulls probably indicate the pride of a place.
Human figurines of both male and female genders are found, the latter being
far more common than the former. Female figurines found are in various
states of embellishment—some are heavily ornamented and have stylized
features, while others have extravagant head-dresses and clothing or
ornaments on their bodies. Models of seated women and groups of mother
and child often draw attention. Among various adornments, of special interest
is a group of heads with either horns or horn-like appendages. Both male and
female torsos are found to have these appendages, which may be associated
with the horned figures on seals. They are considered to be deities. Models of
carts made of terracotta, which most probably have been used as toys, are
also found.
    Among the discoveries in Harappa, a few specimens of images and
sculptures made of both stone and metal can be mentioned here. Eleven
pieces of stone sculptures have been discovered at Mohenjodaro, two at
Harappa, and one each at Dabarkot and Mundigak (Afghanistan). The best
stone sculpture of Mohenjodaro is that of a bearded man wearing an
ornamented robe. The two sculptures found at Harappa are of a tiny (four
inches high) nude male torso made of red sandstone, and a small nude
dancing figure made of a grey stone. Although majority of these sculptures
are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster, discovery of a few
bronze sculptures has also been         reported from Mohenjodaro, Harappa,