mixed or hybrid style. In this development, it is the Dravida, rather than the
Nagara conception that played a comparatively more important role. The
Chalukyan temple, like the Dravida, consists of two main features, the
vimana and the mandapa, joined by an antarala, with occasionally, an
additional open mandapa in front. In course of time, there is a marked
tendency to compress the heights of the storeyed stages of the vimana. At the
same time, ornamental niche motifs, repeated one above the other, up the
ascent of the tower, simulate the vertical bands of the northern spire. Here is
an evident inspiration from the Nagara sikhara. The Chalukyan temple
presents an essential divergence from the Dravida in not having its sanctum
cella enclosed within a covered ambulatory. In the treatment of the exterior
walls, there seems to have been a blending, again, of Nagara and Dravida
ideas. The walls are broken up by ratha offsets in the characteristic Nagara
fashion, further spaced at regular intervals by pilasters in accordance with the
usual Dravida mode. The recesses thus formed, are usually filled up by
niches with superstructures of the Nagara or of the Dravida style, thus
producing a refrain of great artistic beauty. Some of the Chalukyan and most
of the Hoysala temples are distinguished for their multiple-shrined
compositions in which two, three or four shrines are arranged around the
common mandapa hall. Apart from architectural treatment, the Chalukyan
temple, or its descendant, the Hoysala, is also characterised by an exuberant
plastic ornament covering all its external surfaces which seem to have a
richly fretted appearance from the base to the top. In the interior, the pillars
and door-frames, as well as ceilings, are likewise exuberantly treated.
Considered as a whole, the Chalukyan temple, together with its offshoot, the
Hoysala, represents one of the most ornate and florid expressions of Indian
architecture.
SCULPTURE AND ICONOGRAPHY
Pre and Proto-historical Periods
The art of sculpture was practiced by the people of India from pre-historical
times. Many specimens of different    kinds of figures, both animal and human,