necessities as early as the Vedic period, reached now its most innovative
phase. The most remarkable works of the period are perhaps those by
Aryabhata, to whom is attributed a series of important contributions. Some of
the philosophical systems too were disposed towards science. The Nyaya-
Vaisesika system, which explained the formation of gross bodies from atoms
through dyads (dvyanuka) or triads (tryanuka) or elaborated the ‘notion of
impetus,’ must have been fed by the cross-currents of the contemporary
scientific enquiries.
    The recognition of Indian science came early through translations of a
variety of works in the Arabic world and their transmission to the west. It has
however, to be remembered that in India, the spirit of scientific enquiry did
not go entirely unopposed. Some of the brilliant discoveries of Aryabhata
were rejected and even condemned by his illustrious successors like
Varahamihira and Brahmagupta.
ANCIENT INDIAN SECULAR LITERATURE
Kavya Literature
Though the two great Ithihasas (Ramayana and Mahabharata) are
undoubtedly the precursors of Sanskrit Kavya literature, its origin can be
traced to the Vedic hymns. Patanjali mentions three akhyayikiis: Vasavadatta,
Sumanottara and Bhaimarathi. There is reference also to two other works,
the Kamsavadha and the Balibandha, probably dramatic compositions.
Unfortunately, we have no definite knowledge of the growth and
development of Kavya in the period between the 2nd century BC and the 1st
century AD; none of the extant Kavyas may be assigned to this period. But a
strong school of lyric poetry seemed to have existed about the early centuries
of the Christian era and probably still earlier.
    The name of Kalidasa, the most celebrated Indian poet (who is believed
to have flourished in the reign of Candragupta II, but whose best works were
written perhaps during the reign of Kumaragupta I) stands high in the realm
of Sanskrit lyrics. His Meghaduta is the finest work in this genre. The
Ghatakarpara-Kavya written by     Ghatakarpara (who was supposed to be one