still debatable; the hole in the lowest vertebra
frame words and set them in sentences (‘syntax’). This is a feature common
to all the known languages of humanity, however primitive the speakers. The
number of languages that were spoken before the Neolithic Revolution must
have been vast, since it is now realised that the more primitive the human
societies, the more numerous are the languages spoken.
Spread of Dominant Languages As human interaction improved, trade
networks became extensive; and each of the individual states brought under
its control more and more areas, within which it tended to use a single
language. Languages with limited numbers of speakers gradually began to
disappear. Migrations could also lead to the replacement of the older natives’
language(s) by the language of the emigres; or a dominant section or ruling
class might impose its language on the rest of the population. Consequently,
there had been a large reduction in the number of languages spoken since the
Neolithic Revolution.
  Languages themselves change with time, but they yet, carry a large
  number of traces of their early state, as well as of the parent languages out
  of which they have arisen. Such traces help us to identify languages that,
  having the same parents and ancestors, belong to the same families and
  sub-families (or branches). In India, not only are there some major
  languages, but many other minor languages also, though usually spoken
  by smaller numbers of people. The majority of the spoken languages can
  be grouped under the following four ‘families’: 1. Indo-European (Indo-
  Aryan or Indic, Dardic, Iranic and Nuristani branches); 2. Dravidian
  (Southern, Central, South central and Northern branches); 3. Austro-
  Asiatic (Munda and Mon-Khmer branches); and 4. Sino-Tibetan (Tibeto-
  Burmese branch).
Indo-European Family
Major Constituents In the Indo-European family, the Indo-Aryan or Indic
languages are today spoken by a majority of the population of the Indian
subcontinent. These include Hindustani      (the spoken form of Hindi and Urdu),