Reason (R): In the post-Gupta period’ trade and commerce witnessed further
decline which had started during the Gupta period.
Assertion (A): The evil system of dowry, according to Bana, was quite
Reason (R): The institution of svayamvara declined and there is no instance
of its practice in the contemporary literature.
Assertion (A): Wang Hiuen Tse inflicted crushing defeat on Arunasva, a
minister of Harsha who had usurped the throne after the death of Harsha.
Reason (R): Harsha’s refusal to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Chinese
emperor was responsible for the campaigns of Wang Hiuen Tse.
Assertion (A): The actual tiller of the land could be ejected and peasants were
reduced to the status of tenants-at-will.
Reason (R): Certain land grants of the period clearly mention that the donee
had the right to cultivate the land or get it cultivated.
Assertion (A): In the land grants various dues in cash, kind or labour for
purposes of exemption are particularised.
Reason (R): Grantees are conceded several important political and
administrative immuni-ties.
Assertion (A): We may know from the land grants whether the donated piece
of land or village lies within a virgin, semi-virgin or settled area.
Reason (R): Description of the donated land or village and its physical
features is one of the important elements in the land grants.
Assertion (A): Land grants give us a good idea of the social configuration of
the village.
Reason (R): The village elders and various types of inhabitants, identified
caste-wise, find place in many land grants.
Assertion (A): Occasions for grants of land or village are mentioned in the
charters, which may be various kinds of Vedic sacrifices described in the
Reason (R): Many of these sacrifices were performed by improvised
Kshatriya princes to legitimatise their position.
Assertion (A): Some land grants       issued by the Chandela and Oriya kings