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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 792Book's First Page
inscriptions was smaller in area than that of eastern India, and the next larger unit after village. In the inscriptions of Gujarat and northern Maharashtra pathaka and bhaga seem to be next larger units after grama. They formed the next larger units after village in the early Gmjara and Kalachuri kingdoms also. In Saurashtra region, the Maitraka inscriptions indicate that petha was a larger unit than a village. However, the omission of this territorial division from the grants of Dharasena II indicates that it was not a common territorial division in the Maitraka kingdom. Sthali was the next larger division as it is evident from many Maitraka records. However, it seems to have been an indigenous division developed by the Maitrakas, as we do not get reference to it in the pre-Gupta, Gupta, and the post-Gupta records in northern India. Pathaka seems to have been the next larger unit after sthali. The next larger division in the Maitraka plan of provincial territorial division seems to have been an ahara. With the exception of sthali of the Maitraka grants, the terms applied for various divisions were the same throughout northern India though with slight variations. Religious Grants From the pre-Gupta period, and especially from the Gupta and post-Gupta periods, certain political and administrative developments tended to feudalise the state apparatus. One of the most striking developments was the practice of making land grants to Brahmins, a custom which was sanctified by the injections laid down in the Dharmasastras, the Puranas and the Mahabharata. Two significant features of such grants, which became more frequent from the fifth century AD, were the transfer of all sources of revenue and the surrender of administrative and police functions. The transfer of all sources of revenue by the ruler to the Brahmins is evident from the land grants made by the Vakataka rulers from the time of Pravarasena II (5th century AD) onwards. In these the ruler gave up his control over almost all sources of revenue, including pasturage, hides and charcoal, mines for the production of salt, forced labour, and hidden treasures and deposits.