conditions. Nalanda had almost all the infrastructure we associate with a
  good university in today’s time, namely, multiple classrooms, extensive
  library, dormitories for students, accommodation for professors, etc. On
  the other hand, Taxila University did not have any lecture halls nor did it
  provide residential quarters for its teachers or students. There was no
  centralized system of schooling or syllabus in Taxila. Taxila followed no
  system of examinations, and did not award degrees to its students. The
  education system there was flexible, and was modified according to a
  student’s capabilities. Also, the teachers of Taxila worked with complete
  autonomy, forming their own school of learning with their specific set of
  rules and manner of functioning. Most of these schools were run by
  teachers in their private houses, and received no formal infrastructural
  support from the Taxila University, unlike Nalanda. As far as the objective
  of imparting knowledge is concerned, both Taxila and Nalanda
  universities were very effective institutions, but their manner of
  functioning differed drastically, with Nalanda University being more
  structured than Taxila.
Soon after his accession Skandagupta had to face the Hunas who had already
proved themselves to be a terror to both Europe and Asia. About the middle
of the fifth century AD one branch of the Hunas, known as Ephthalties or
White Hunas, occupied the Oxus valley and threatened both Persia and India.
They conquered Gandhara and threatened the very existence of the Gupta
     Skandagupta faced the situation with grim resolution and inflicted such a
terrible defeat upon the Hunas that the latter dared not disturb the empire for
nearly half a century. It was a magnificent achievement for which he assumed
the title Vikramaditya in imitation of his grandfather. The Chandra
Vyakarana and Kathasaritsagara refer to Skandagupta’s victory over the
     His constant source of anxiety was the old Saka kingdom of Saurashtra,
newly annexed to the Gupta empire, where he appointed a capable person
called Parnadatta as governor.