unmistakable Roman influence—a direct imitation from the issues of
Augustus, Tiberius or Claudius. The two epithets dhramathida
(dharmasthita) and sachadhramathida (satyadharmasthita) meaning
‘steadfast in the true faith’ suggest that Kujula was either a Buddhist or a
Saiva by creed. The reign of Kadphises I may be assigned roughly to the
period AD 15–64.
    Vima Kadphises (AD 64–78) succeeded his father a fairly mature age. His
comparatively short reign was spent in expanding the Kushana power into the
interior of India. Taxila and the Punjab were not only annexed to his empire
but a far distant region Mathura was perhaps added to the orbit of the
Kushana empire. The nameless king of ‘Soter Megas’ coins was most
probably the viceroy appointed by Vima Kadphises to govern his vast
dominion which extended over the territories lying between the Indus and the
    Vima Kadphises was one of the few early foreign rulers who became a
zealous adherent of an Indian creed, the Pasupata. All his coins, whether in
gold or copper show unmistakable signs of his Saiva affiliation. The reverse
device of his coins consists of Siva with his long trident, sometimes
accompanied by his bull and sometimes not, or of a trident battle-axe; the
obverse gives a new life-like representation of the monarch, either seated on a
couch or standing sacrificing at an altar, or even riding in a chariot drawn by
two horses.
    The abundance of gold and copper coins issued by Virna Kadphises
indicated the prosperity of the Kushana empire. During his time a brisk trade
in silk, spices, gems and other articles was carried on between India and
China and the Roman empire. The Roman gold coins that flowed into India
influenced the gold coinage of the imperial Kushanas. Kanishka is usually
regarded as a successor of Vima Kadphises, though the exact relationships
between the two is not known.
  Kanishka ruled in the first century  AD and was the founder of the Saka era