Importance of Scytho-Parthian Rule
The Scythian penetration was too deep and covered a wide region embracing
within its fold extreme north, north-west, parts of the Punjab, Mathura and
the adjoining regions, north-western Deccan and western India. The Sakas
and the Parthians used to govern many of their Indian possessions through
strategoi and satraps. They maintained the system of administering districts
and other smaller units of the country with the help of such officials as
meridarkhs and others—a system introduced by the Indo-Greeks. .
    The Sakas did not strike gold, their coins being mostly in silver and
copper: the Pahlavas restricted themselves to issuing copper and in rare
instances silver money.
    The economic and social life of the country was well organised through
guilds and the state guaranteed the existence of these institutions by affording
them necessary assistance. According to one Nasik cave inscription, a
donation of 3,000 karshapanas by Ushavadatta, son-in-law of Nahapana, was
a perpetual endowment for the benefit of the Buddhist monks of any sect
dwelling in the cave. Another Nasik cave inscription records a similar
endowment with the guilds at Govardhana to provide medicines for the sick
of the Sangha of monks of any sect.
The name Kushana originally meant a tribe or family of the Yuehchi people.
By the beginning of the first century BC the Yuehchis gave up their nomadic
habits and divided themselves into five groups or principalities. Nearly a
century after this division, Kujula Kadphises I (the king of one of the five
principalities) attacked and subjugated the other four principalities. This led
to the establishment of a large empire in India and the Indian borderlands.
Invaluable Evidence from Bactrian Inscription A sea-change in the
Kushana studies is in the offing with the recent discovery of a Bactrian
inscription (Bactrian being a Middle Iranian language written in Greek script,
used regularly on the Kushana coins from the time of Kanishka I onwards).