in Sind region as a feudatory of the
recover the lost satrapal possessions. He might have been assisted in this
onerous undertaking by his son Jayadaman and his grandson Rudradaman.
Jayadaman predeceased him while holding the office of satrapa under his
father; but Rudradaman, his grandson, was associated with him as satrapa for
some time. Chashtana was the only member of his line who used the three
scripts—Greek, Kharoshthi and Brahmi in his coin legends.
    Chashtana established a royal line which continued without intermission
up to the beginning of the fourth century AD. Each successor of Chashtana
was the son of a prince who had ruled before him either as mahakshatrapa or
satrapa. The duration of Chashtana’s rule cannot be determined with
certainty, but the end must have been between AD 140 and 150 as is proved
by the reference to Tiastenes (Chashtana) and his capital Ozene (Ujjain) in
Ptolemy’s Geography.
    Chashtana was succeeded by his grandson Rudradaman. According to the
Junagarh Rock Inscription he won for himself the title of mahak-shatrapa.
The Junagarh inscription testifies that Rudradaman twice defeated Satakarni,
lord of the Deccan, but spared him out of filial regard for him. The identity of
this defeated ruler is a subject of much speculation. He has been identified by
some with Gautamiputra, by others with his son Vasishthiputra Pulamayi.
But the more probable view is that the vanquished ruler was Vasishthiputra
Satakarni himself, the son of Gautamiputra and a brother and predecessor of
    Rudradaman conquered Malwa, Saurashtra, Gujarat, the northern
Konkanand Mahishmati. His territories also comprised other places such as
Kachcha (Cutch), Svabhra (Sabarmati valley), Maru (Marwar region),
Sindhu-Sauvira (lower Indus valley) and Nishada (the region near the
western Vindhyas and the Aravalli hills). He also humbled the warlike
Yaudheyas who inhabited southern Punjab and the adjoining regions. He had
his capital at Ujjain.
    Rudradaman was not only a great conqueror but a great patron of
learning. He earned great fame by the study of various sciences like grammar,
polity, music and logic and was reputed for the excellence of his
compositions in Sanskrit, both in prose and verse. His love for the Sanskrit
language is apparent from the fact that while the inscriptions of many other
Saka rulers are in Prakrit mixed       with Sanskrit, the famous inscription of