though it was not until the Kushana ascendency that this system of
government was well-established here. Among the host of names found in the
inscriptions and coins two principal groups of satraps are known-the earlier
group consisting of two persons only, Bhumaka and Nahapana belonging to
the Kshaharata race while the latter group comprises a large number of
satraps known to have descended from Chashtana.
The Kshaharatas The first satrap of the Kshaharata family was Bhumaka
who was probably entrusted with the task of administering the south-western
part of the empire of the Kushanas. The type and fabric of his coins as well as
the legends on them prove incontestably that Bhumaka preceded Nahapana
but their exact relationship is not known. The use of both Kharoshthi and
Brahmi scripts in Bhumaka’s coins points to the fact that the satrapa
territories not only comprised such districts as Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra
where Brahmi was in vogue but also some regions of western Rajasthan and
Sind where Kharoshthi was prevalent.
    Bhumaka’s successor Nahapana is known not only from his silver and
copper coins, but also from several inscriptions. Several scholars Identify
Nahapana with Mambarus of the Peri plus whose capital was Minnagara in
Ariake. Minnagara is identified with modern Mandasor and Ariake with
Aparanta.
    The inscriptions of his son-in-law and general, Ushavadata, discovered at
Pandulena (near Nasik), Junnar and Karle (Poona district) show that
Nahapana was master of a large part of Maharashtra. Not only did southern
Gujarat, northern Konkan, and the Nasik and Poona districts form part of his
dominions but Saurashtra (Kathiawar), Kukura (a region in the south of
Rajputana), Akara (east Malwa) and Avanti (western Malwa) and even
Pushkar in Ajmer were incorporated in his kingdom. It appears from the
Nasik inscription and the Jogalthembi hoard of coins in the Nasik district that
the power of Nahapana was crushed by the Satavahana ruler, Gautamiputra
Satakarni who annexed the southern provinces of the Kshaharata dominions.
    The Kshaharata family seems to have disap- peared with Nahapana’s
death. In the south-western satrapy of the Kushana empire the Kshaharatas
were succeeded by the Saka family of the Kardamakas.
The Kardamakas The original home of the Kardamakas is not known, but
Chashtana may have been ruling