the Kushanas) from the north-west into the
the Kharoshti script, a major cultural trait of the north-west, in the Ganga
valley and specially in the Gangetic delta. Chunar, not far away from
Benares, has yielded a number of sand-stone columns with Kharoshti
inscriptions, palaeographically assignable to the second century AD. The
discovery of a plaque with a Kharoshti inscription, belonging to the third
century AD, from Kumarahar excavations (near Patna) long ago, thus assumes
a special significance. But the most important evidence comes from Gangetic
West Bengal. Different areas in West Bengal have revealed a large number of
seals, sealings and potteries inscribed with Kharoshti and Kharoshti-Brahmi
‘mixed’ script, assignable to the first four centuries of the Christian era.
In the mid-third century BC, Bactria and Parthia seceded from the Seleucidian
empire and became independent kingdoms. But before that in 293. BC
Antiochus I became joint king with his father Seleucus, Bactria being placed
in his charge. Two years afterwards he became sole king. His son Antiochus
II came to be associated with him as a joint ruler in 266 BC and became the
sole king a few years afterwards. According to Justin, Parthia revolted against
the Seleucidian rule and became independent under Arsaces. About the same
time Diodotus, the governor of Bactria, rebelled and proclaimed himself king.
Before he became king, Diodotus must have served as a governor of Bactria.
    According to Justin, Diodotus was not on friendly terms with Arsaces of
Parthia. Diodotus was succeeded by his son of the same name who reversed
the anti-Parthian policy of his father and allied himself with Parthia, the
enemy of the Seleucids. He met a violent death at the hands of an adventurer
named Euthydemus who took the crown himself.
House of Euthydemus
The story of independent Bactria is essentially that of Euthydemus and his
eldest son Demetrius. The abundance of Euthydemus’ coins seems to suggest
that he had a fairly long reign over an expanding kingdom. His silver coins
have been found in large numbers in Babkh (Bactria) and Bokhara
(Sogdiana), to the north of the Hindukush, but they are less common in
Kabul, Kandahar and Seistan