hills and peoples with whom they had clan
        through the subordination of the kilar, who fought for and shared the
        booty with them.
Rise of Three Lineage Polities There were three lineages: Chera, Chola
and Pandya, with their domains in the kurinchi (hills) dominated zones from
the western ghats to the Arabian sea, the Kaveri basin and the mullai-palai
(jungles-dry lands) dominated south central zones including the sea coast
(neydal) respectively. But there was neither the notion of a precise boundary
of each one’s domain, nor the practice of periodic exaction in fixed tithes or
rent. Similarly, there is no evidence to show that the allegiance of lesser
chiefs in the border zone was perpetual in the case of any of the ventar.
Absence of territoriality is implicit here and it makes one suspicious of the
assumption about the existence of a state during the early historic period.
Events Leading to Structural Transformation Some efforts have been
made to identify certain developments as the prime movers of the social
formation that subsequently brought about structural transformation. Though
not in terms of prime movers or indispensable factors, all major
developments in the early historic Tamil society have been regarded as
consequences of the dialectics of socio-economic change. The dialectics of
socio-economic change indicate the totality of the dynamics of interaction
among peoples. The formation of macro-eco-zones and the development of
chiefdoms in such zones can be ascribed to the economic interaction among
the social groups of different micro-eco-zones.
Bactrian or Indo-Greeks
    • Family of Eucratides: Demetrius & Manander
    • Family of Euthydemus: Antialcidas & Hermaues
Scythians or Westrn Sakas (1 of 5 Branches)
    • Kshaharatas: Bhumaka & Nahapana
    • Kardamakas: Chasthana & Rudradaman (Junagarh Inscription)
Parthians or Pahlavas
    • Gondophernes (Arrival of St. Thomas)
Yeuchis or Kushans