invaded Bharatavarsha (the Gangetic valley)
overran the Tamil country as far south as the Pandya kingdom. In the twelfth
year, he again led his army into the northern plains, defeated the king of
Magadha and carried away immense booty to Kalinga. It is said that
Kharavela built a magnificent temple at Bhuvanesvar out of the enormous
wealth acquired from Magadha.
    Kharavela was a warrior king but he still found time to devote to works of
piety and public utility. He was an ardent follower of Jainism and made
munificent provisions for the maintenance of Jaina ascetics. He set up
residential chambers on the top of the Udayagiri hill and set up magnificent
columns in a grand hall for the congregation of Jaina monks. But he was by
no means a bigot and showed equal honour to all sects. Although there is
perhaps some exaggeration in the account of his achievements as narrated in
the Hathigumpha inscription, it cannot be denied that Kharavela was a
military leader of rare ability and under him Kalinga reached a pinnacle of
glory which it failed to regain for several centuries after his death.
Post-Mauryan Polity
Nature of Polity
Theory of State and Growing Importance of Monarchy There is a
general consensus among the early Indian political theorists with regard to
the causes for the origin of the state which, according to them, brought to a
close the earlier conditions of anarchy and lawlessness. There are, however,
differences about the relative positions of preeminence among the various
limbs of the state. In course of time, the king became the pivotal limb, and a
special sanctity came to be attached to his position as he was endowed with
divinity. If Asoka was merely a ‘Beloved of the Gods’ (devanampiya), the
Kushanas were the ‘Sons of the Gods’ (devaputra); both Gautamiputra
Satakarni and Rudradaman were, in their prasastis, endowed with qualities
which were beyond common human capacity to acquire. Manu was thus,
reflecting the changed situation when he said that the king, even if infant, is a
‘great deity in human form’.
    This emphasis on monarchy had a profound impact on the existing
political organisations. The ganas of the earlier period did not, of course,
disappear; in fact, many of them    such as the Yaudheyas, Malavas and others