Tinal       Agam          Puram            Inhabitants Deities
      (Regions)   (Love)        (War)
  1. Kurinji      Pre-          Cattle           Kuruvar     Murugan
      (Hills)     materials     raiding          (Hunters)   Subramaniya,
                  love                                       Skanda,
  2. Palai        Long          Burning          Maravar     Korravai,
      (Dry        separation    the              (Warriors)  Durga
      lands)      of lovers     countryside
  3. Mullai       Brief         Raiding          Kurumbar    Krishna,
      (Jugles)    separation    expeditions      (Shepherds) Tirumala
                  of lovers                                  Mayon
  4. Marudam Post-marital       Seige            U1avar      Indra, Senon
      (Plains)    love                           (Ploughmen)
  5. Neydal       Parting of    Pitched          Paradavar   Varuna
      (Coast)     fishermen’s   battles          (Fishermen) Kadalon
                  wives from
According to the Puranas various dynasties like the Sungas, the Kanvas and
the Andhras emerged to fill up the vacuum caused by the fall of the Mauryas.
The kingdom of Kalinga declared its independence and the Tamil kingdoms
of the south were no longer considered as subservient to the north but
participated in the prosperous maritime commerce of the Indian Ocean and in
the movement of the colonisation in Southeast Asia. The North-west India
had to pass through several waves of foreign invasions—Greeks, Partho-
Scythians and Yuehchis or Kushanas—who founded kingdoms in India and
left ineffaceable memories on