included executive, revenue, judicial and overall supervision. They were
directly responsible to the samharta.
                            Provincial Administration
        Area            Province                        Capital
  Northern           Uttarapatha       Taxila
  Western            Avantipatha       Ujjain
  Eastern            Prachyapatha      Toshali (Kalinga)
  Southernmost       Dakshinapatha Surarnagiri
  Central            Magdha            Pataliputra (It was also the
  Province                             headquarters of the entire kingdom)
Districts The district was under the charge of the rajuka (Asokan edicts),
whose position and functions are similar to those of a modern district
collector. He was assisted by yuktas (Kautilya and Asoka), subordinate
officials doing secretarial work and accounting.
Intermediate Level This unit, consisting of five to ten villages, was under
gopa and sthanika. The former maintained proper records and accounts, and
the latter collected taxes.
Village It was under the charge of the gramani, assisted by a council of
elders in the administration of the village.
Municipal Administration Kautilya devotes a full chapter to the role of
the nagarika or city superintendent. His chief duty was maintenance of law
and order, but he also discharged some other duties. He was assisted by two
officials, gopa and sthanika.
Nature of Mauryan State
Earlier Views For long, the Mauryan state was perceived as more or less a
welfare state, since it was supposed     to have considered itself a trustee of the