as Gautama and by his nickname Aksapada. It is based on the Nyaya Sutra,
probably composed about the 2nd century AD .
    There are five clauses in the Nyaya philosophy: (1) the proposition. (2)
the cause, (3) the exemplification, (4) the recapitulation of the cause, and (5)
the conclusion.
    Nyaya teaching states that the existence of ideas. beliefs, visions, and
emotions are all dependent on a mind, since without a mind to ‘think them’
they would not exist. However, such things as animals, plants, rivers.
mountains, houses, monuments, etc., not being dependent on our minds, exist
whether or not we know or ‘think them’.
    However, later when the Vaisesika merged with the Nyaya about the 9th
century or earlier (and perhaps with some Saivite influence), the Nyaya
became theistic.
Vedanta
The term Vedanta means ‘the end of the Veda’ or the culmination of Vedic
speculation. The basic text is the Brahma Sutra or Vedanta Sutra attributed to
Badarayana and composed sometime between 200 and 450 AD.
    Traditional Vedanta consists of the largest exegesis’ of the Veda called
Uttaramimamsa coupled with the ‘earlier exegesis’, Purvamimamsa. The
main schools within Vedanta are Advaita (non-dualism), Visishtadvaita
(qualified non-dualism) and Dvaita (dualism).
    The first systematisers were Gaudapada and Sankara who established the
Advaita Vedanta. It includes many features adopted from Mahayana
Buddhism, especially the doctrine of Sunyavada. Sankara based his doctrine
on the famous passage ‘thou art that’ (Tat tvam asi) of the Chandogya
Upanishad.
Mimamsa
The name of this system means ‘critical examination’ or ‘solution of a
problem by reflection’. The early Mimamsa is sometimes called
Purvamimamsa, to distinguish it from the more complex Vedanta called
Uttaramimamsa, or Brahmamimamsa which concentrates on the teachings of
the Upanishads.
    Mimamsa is an atheistic system attributed to Jaimini and summarised in