eliminate it, nor did they aim to do so. (iv) Both accepted the doctrines of
karma and rebirth. (v) Both renounced worldly life and sought salvation.
(vi) The founders of both belonged to the Kshatriya varna.
Differences (i) The method of attaining salvation for Jainas was an
extreme one, but for the Buddhists it was a moderate or middle one. (ii)
Jainism gave prominence to lay followers, while Buddhism relied mainly
on the Sangha and its monks, (iii) Jainism was confined to India, but
survived in it. Buddhism spread rapidly to foreign lands, but died in India,
(iv) Jainism preserved the metaphysical discussions of the Brahmins, but
Buddhism avoided them.
Between the heterodox religions like Buddhism and Jainism on the one
extreme, and the orthodox Vedic religion on the other, there grew up certain
religious systems which were destined to become popular soon. These
religious sects had no faith in the mechanical system of worship prescribed in
the Vedas. But while they agreed with Buddhism and Jainism to a large
extent, they did not share the athiestic world view of these two religions. The
new theistic religions centred round the idea of a supreme God conceived as
Vishnu, Siva, Sakti or some other form. Salvation was possible through his
grace (prasada) alone, and this could be attamed only by bhakti, that is,
intense love and devotion leading to complete surrender of self to God.
One of the chief representatives of this new system was Bhagavatism, which
owed its orgin to the Upanishadic stream of thought and culminated, in the
east, in Buddhism and Jainism. It arose about the same time in the west
among the Satvatas, a branch of Yadavas, who settled in the Mathura region.
Originally, it merely laid stress upon the idea of a supreme God, God of gods,
called Hari, and emphasised the necessity of worshipping Him with devotion,
in preference to older methods of sacrifices and rituals. It did not altogether
do away with either sacrifice