leading to death.
10. The Panhavagaranaim (Prasnavyakar-anani) is a dogmatic treatise
dealing with the ten precepts, ten prohibitions, etc.
11. The Vivagasuyam (Vipakasrutam) contains legends illustrating the
consequences, after death, of good and bad deeds of a man done in
12. The Ditthivaya (Drishtivada) is only imperfectly known from
allusions in other texts. It seems to have contained miscellaneous
doctrines of a varied character.
They possess very little literary interest, as their contents are mostly dogmatic
and mythological in character. The second Rayapasenaijja is, however, of
some literary merit, and contains a dialogue between the Jaina monk Kesi and
a king, Paesi (probably Prasenajit of Kosala). The fifth, sixth, and seventh
Upangas deal with astronomy, geography, cosmology, etc. The eighth
Nirayavalisuttam contains an interesting account of Ajatasatru, but its
historical authenticity is doubtful.
As the name signifies (Prakima—scattered), they deal with various doctrinal
matters and are written in verse.
They deal with disciplinary rules for monks and nuns, and illustrate them by
various legends. The best known work is Kalpasutra, attributed to
Bhadrabahu. The Kalpasutra forms a part of the fourth Chhedasutra and
consists of three sections. Another Kalpasutra which forms the fifth
Chhedasutra is looked upon as the principal treatise on the rules of conduct
of the Jaina monks and nuns.
They are very valuable Jaina texts. The first, the Uttaranjjhayana
(Uttaradhyayanasutra) forms one of the most important portions of the
canon, and contains parables, maxims, ballads and dialogues.
VI. Miscellaneous Texts