Chedasutras & 4
    The first Jaina council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the
beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas
(sections or limbs) to replace the lost 14 Purvas (former texts). However
these texts were accepted only by the Svetambaras.
    The second council was held at Valabhi in the fifth century AD by the
Svetambaras under the leadership of Devardhi Kshamasramana, and resulted
in the final compilation of the 12 Angas and 12 Upangas (minor sections).
    In the later centuries also, further splits took place in both Digambaras
and Svetambaras. Samaiyas broke away from the former and Terapantis from
the latter. Both these new groups renounced idol worship and worshipped
only the scriptures.
Jaina Church
Mahavira himself founded the Jaina Church. His severe asceticism and
simple doctrines attracted many followers. He had eleven close disciples or
apostles known as ganadharas (heads of schools). Only one of them, Arya
Sudharman, survived Mahavira and became the thera (pontiff) of the Jaina
Church after his death.
    Sudharman, the first thera, died 20 years after his master’s death. His
successor was Jambu who held the office for 44 years. Three generations of
pontiffs passed after him and during the reign of the last Nanda of Magadha,
the Jaina Church was ruled by two theras, Sambhutavijaya and Bhadrabahu,
one after another.
    The fourteen Purvas, the text books of the old Jaina scriptures which
Mahavira himself had taught to his ganadharas, were perfected by
Sambhutavijaya and Bhadrabahu. Sambhutavijaya is said to have died in the
same year in which Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne.
    For the history of the Jaina Church from its inception to the fourth or
third century BC, we are indebted to the Jaina Kalpasutra of Bhadrabahu who
was the sixth thera after Mahavira, and was a contemporary of Chandragupta
    The Jaina Kalpasutra consists of three different sections—the first
section, called the Jainacharita, contains the biographies of the twenty three
jinas or tirthankaras who preceded           Mahavira. The twenty third jina,