a multitude of worlds, and the bod-hisattvas with him became filled
        with compassion for all beings.
    Other important sutras are (a) the Sukhavativyuha, dealing with the
subject of salvation through faith in Amitabha; (b) the Vajrachhedika or the
Diamond Sutra, which expounds the doctrine of sunyata and clarifies several
other concepts central to Mahayana, (c) the Mahapari-nirvana, delivered by
Buddha just as he was about to enter nirvana, (d) the Lankavatara (400 AD),
supposedly written by Vasubandhu, teaches the ultimate reality of Mind
alone; and (e) the Surangama outlines the means of attaining enlightenment
by concentration, meditation, and super conscious intuition. The surangama
is written partly in the form of a dialogue between Buddha and the errant
Ananda who had been lured by the harlot Chitta.
Causes for the Popularity of Buddhism
    •   Non-indulgence in metaphysical discussions and its original
        simplicity appealed to the masses.
    •   It did not attach any importance to the existing varna system and
        hence appealed to the lower classes.
    •   Admission of women to the Sangha also swelled its ranks (Gautami,
        the widowed step-mother of Buddha, was the first Buddhist nun).
    •   The use of Pali, the language of the people, in the early phase helped
        it further.
    •   Its adoption by the monarchies of Magadha, Kosala, Kausambi and
        several republican states in the initial period, and by Asoka, the Indo-
        Greeks, Kushanas, Harsha and Palas in the later period.
Causes for the Decline of Buddhism
    •   Reform of Brahmanism and the rise of Bhagavatism.
    •   Giving up the use of Pali and taking up the use of Sanskrit by the
        Buddhists from the first century AD.
    •   Practising idol-worship and receiving offerings and huge donations,
        leading to deterioration in moral standards.
    •   Attacks by the Hunas (fifth and sixth centuries AD) and Turkish
        invaders (12th century AD  ).