punishments for them; (3) the Samyutta-nikaya discusses Buddhist doctrine,
and includes riddles and aphorisms, ballads in mixed prose and verse and
many sayings of Buddha; (4) the Anguttara-nikaya (or Ekottara-nikaya), a
collection of sermons arranged in ascending numerical order, enumerating
doctrines and principles; and lastly (5) the Khuddaka-nikaya, an anthology of
smaller pieces, comprising fifteen books of miscellanea which are essential
for an understanding of Buddhism.
    The principal texts of the Khuddaka-nikaya are often taken to include a
few of the most extensive of the Pali canonical writings. The important ones
are given below:
    (a) The Khuddaka-patha: Meaning the lesser readings; It is a book for
        young neophytes when they join the Sangha.
    (b) The Dhammapada (the Law-path): The best known of the Buddhist
        canonical texts, it is a collection of over four hundred aphoristic
        verses garnered from the sayings of Buddha.
    (c) The Udana: Based on the utterances of Buddha which are set in the
        framework of a narrative (One of them contains the world-famous
        story of the blind men who having felt an elephant, each touching a
        different part or limb, report their findings, each giving a different
        version: the truth being thus viewed from various aspects, as all truth
        must be viewed by imperfect beings).
    (d) The Itivuttaka: It contains material similar to the Udana in the form of
        120 sayings which touch upon some of the deepest problems of
        human existence.
    (e) The Suttanipata: It preserves many fragments of the oldest Buddhist
        poetry and gives valuable information on the social and religious
        conditions in Buddhist India.
    (f) The Jataka: It comprises stories of Buddha’s former lives, which are
        among the most ancient fables in world literature.
    (g) The Buddhavamsa: This records legends in verse about the twenty-
        four Buddhas who preceded Gautama in earlier times.
    (h) The Theragatha: Literally meaning the Songs of the Elders, and
    (i) The Therigatha: The Songs of the Lady Elders contains religious
        lyrical poetry of a high order.
                                    deals with the same subjects as the Sutta
The Abhidhamma Pitaka: It