five Dhyani Buddhas, viz. (1) Amitabha, (2) Akshobhya, (3) Vairochana, (4)
Ratnasambhava, and (5) Amoghasiddhi. These Dhyani Buddhas represent the
five material elements of which the world is made; air, water, ether, fire and
earth, and they also stand for the cosmic elements (skandhas), rupa (form),
vedana (sensation), samjana (name), samskara (conformation) and vijnana
(consciousness). The Dhyani Buddhas take no part in the act of creation,
which task they relegate to their corresponding Bodhisattvas. The
Bodhisattvas are further supposed to have been working through the Manushi
Buddhas (Mortal Buddhas) like Krakuchchhanda, Kanakamuni and Gautama;
this idea is however, extra-Indian. With the increasing preponderance of the
‘Female’ principle each of the Dhyani Buddhas and Bodhisattvas was given a
consort. Further, each of the Dhyani Buddhas came to be looked upon as
kulesa (lord of families) of several gods and goddesses. The five kulas
(families) are dvesha (hatred), moha (delusion), raga (attachment), chin-
tamani (gem of contemplation), and samaya (convention). Evidently with the
introduction of new entrants of deities, the Vajrayana priests and authors
began to tag them to one or more of these Dhyani Buddhas.
 Names           Material Cosmic            Mudras       Colours Symbols    Vahanas
 Elements                 Elements
 Amitabha        Air      Samjana           Samadhi      Red     Padma      Peacock
 Akshodbhya      Water    Vijnana           Bhusparsa    Blue    Vajra      Elephant
 Vairochana      Ether    Rupa              Dharmachakra White   Chakra     Dragon
 Ratnasam- bhava Fire     Vedana            Varada       Yellow  Ratna      Lion
 Amoghasi- ddhi  Earth    Samskara          Abhaya       Green   Visvavajra Garuda
  Names               Saktis               Bodhisattvas         Manushi
  Amitabha            Pandara              Padmapani or         Gautama
  Akshobhya           Lochana              Vajrapani            Kanakamuni
  Vairochana          Marichi              Samanthabhadra Krakuchchhanda
  Ratnasambhava Mamaki                     Ratnapani