(1) Akshobhya (unshakable), also called
Mamaki (motherling); (3) Amoghasiddhi (infallible power) or Visvapani (all-
holding), whose sakti is Vajradhatvesvari; (4) Mahasthama (great-stance),
who is the embodiment of wisdom; (5) Maitreya (benevolent), a messianic
saviour still to come, he is waiting in the Tushita heaven for the appointed
    The next stage in the evolution of the theology of the new Buddhism was
the doctrine of the ‘Three Bodies’ (trikaya). According to which the Buddha
has three bodies—the Body of Essence (dharmakaya), the Body of Bliss
(sambhogakaya) and the Body of Magic Transformation (nirmanakaya). It
was the nirmanakaya only that lived on earth as Siddhartha Gautama, an
emanation of the sambhogakaya, which dwells forever in the heavens as a
sort of supreme god. This Body of Bliss is in turn the emanation of the
dharmakaya, the ultimate Buddha, who encompasses the whole universe.
Subtle philosophies and metaphysical systems were developed along with
these theological ideas, and the dharmakaya was identified with nirvana. It
was in fact the World Soul, the Brahman of the Upanishads, in a new form.
    In the fully developed Mahayanist cosmology there were many
sambhogakayas, all of them emanations of the single dharmakaya. But the
heavenly Buddha chiefly concerned with our world was Amitabha
(Immeasurable Radiance), who dwelt in sukhavati or the heaven. With him
was associated the earthly Gautama Buddha, and a very potent and
compassionate Bodhisattva, Avalokitesvara (the Lord Who Looks Down).
    Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism flourished side by side in India
during the early centuries of the ‘Christian era, and we read of Buddhist
monasteries in which some of the monks were Mahayanist and some
Hinayanist. But in general the Buddhists of north-western India were either
Mahayanists or members of Hinayana sects much affected by Mahayanist
ideas. The more austere forms of Hinayana seem to have been stronger in
parts of western and southern India, and in Ceylon. It was from north-western
India, under the rule of the great Kushana empire that Buddhism spread
throughout Central Asia to China.
    Mahayana also produced physical theories that had a profound influence
on Hinduism. The two chief schools of Mahayana philosophy were the
Madhyamika (Doctrine of the Middle Position) and the Vijnanavada
                                Yogachara (The Way of Yoga or Union). The
(Doctrine of Consciousness) or