sensations or feelings (vedana), perceptions or understanding (sanna),
psychic disposition or will (samkhara), and consciousness (vinnana). The
first consists of the objects of sense and various other elements of less
importance. Sensations of the actual feelings arising as a result of the exercise
of the six senses (mind being the sixth) upon sense objects, and perceptions
are the cognition of such sensations. The psychic dispositions include all the
various psychological states, propensities, faculties, and conditions of the
individual, and the fifth component, conscience thought, arises from the
interplay of the other psychic constituents. The individual is made up of a
combination of the five components, which are never the same from one
moment to the next, and therefore his whole being is in a state of constant
Buddhist Sangha
The Buddha had two kinds of disciples–monks (bhikshus) and lay
worshippers (upasikas), the former were organised into the Sangha or
congregation, the number of which swelled with the spread of Buddhism. The
membership of the Sangha or the Religious Order was open to all persons,
male or female, above fifteen years of age, and who were free from leprosy,
consumption and other infectious diseases. Persons who were in the service
of the king or an individual, or who were in debt or had been branded as
robbers or criminals were refused admission into the Sangha. But exceptions
were made in the case of convicts, slaves or persons with bodily deformities.
There were no caste restrictions, on membership.
     Monasteries were constructed to give suitable accommodation to the
monks and the nuns for carrying on their studies and meditation. Gradually,
monasteries developed into academic centres for producing the right type of
men, well-grounded in religion and philosophy, to propagate the teachings of
     During the three or four months of rains, beginning from the day next to
the full moon day Ashadha, the monks were required to take up a fixed abode
and depend for their subsistence on the neighbouring households. During this
period they preached Buddhism to the people in the evening just like the
katha system (narration of stories) of the present-day. At the close of the