Mahapadma Nanda reigned for about ten
the last of the Nandas, Dhana Nanda, was ruling Magadha.
Ancient Indian Republics (650–325 BC)
The study of the Jaina, Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveals the existence
of several flourishing republics and autonomous clans in northern India. Pali
records indicate the names of about ten republics, which existed in northern
India during the lifetime of the Buddha. The Sakyas of Kapilavastu, the
Mallas of Kusinagar and Pava and the Lichchhavis of Vaisali were the
prominent republics of the period.
    It appears that the country of Sakyas was situated on the borders of India
and Nepal. King Virudhaka, son of Prasenjit, attacked the republic and
annexed it to Kosala kingdom. During this political upheaval, a large number
of Sakyas were cruelly annihilated.
    The Mallas were divided into two branches. The first branch ruled Pava
and the other ruled from Kusinagar. Incidentally, Mahavira breathed his last
in Pavao. The second place also became famous as Lord Buddha achieved
parinirvana there. The republic of the Mallas prospered till it was annexed to
the Magadhan empire during the reign of Ajatasatru.
    The Lichchhavis of Vaisali proved to be the most powerful and
flourishing republic in an age of all-round conquest wars and invasions. They
were dauntless and war-loving people. Their martial ardour kept the
neighbouring states under good check. The states encircling the republic
dared not offend the Lichchhavis. Ajatasatru’s lust for territorial gain
ultimately resulted in the loss of their freedom. However, the contest
continued for fifteen years and Ajatasatru had to pay heavily in terms of men
and materials before overpowering them and annexing the territory.
    The names of the republics are appended below: (1) the Sakyas of
Kapilavastu, (2) the Lichchhavis of Vaisali, (3) the Mallas of Pava, (4) the
Mallas of Kusinagar, (5) the Kolliyas of Ramagrama, (6) the Bhaggas of
Sumsumasa, (7) the Moriyas of Pippalivahana, (8) the Kalamas of Kesaputta,
(9) the Videhas of Mithila, and (10) the Nayas (Jnatrikas) of Kundalagrama
near Vaisali.
Persian and Greek Invasions