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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 282Book's First Page
gana-sangha system. Included in the sreni were the artisans, and if the guild prospered then not only were assistants (antevasika) but also dasa-bhritaka were employed. In this period however there are few references to the employment of dasas by artisans or guilds. The sreni was gradually to evolve into a professional group bound by contractual ties. Its professional identity encouraged its evolution into a jati and these were among the large number of occupational jatis which were to be allotted a sudra status in the varna system. POLITICAL HISTORY Mahajanapadas and Magadhan Imperialism 16 LARGE STATES In the pre-Maurya period the entire northern territory was divided into sixteen states or sodasha mahajanapadas. The states had either monarchical or republican form of government. The Buddhist literature, particularly the Anglltfara Nikaya, lists the following states. (1) Anga, (2) Magadha, (3) Kasi, (4) Kosala, (5) Vajji, (6) Malla, (7) Chedi, (8) Vatsa, (9) Kuru, (10) Panchala, (11) Matsya, (12) Surasena, (13) Assake, (14) Avanti, (15) Gandhara, and (16) Kambhoja. The small and weak kingdoms either submitted to the stronger rulers or gradually got eliminated. Finally during the life time of Buddha only four Kingdoms—(1) Vatsa, (2) Avanti, (3) Kosala and (4) Magadha— survived.