Back to Projects JOIN WHATSAPP GROUP Free PSC MCQ 4 Lakhs+ Please Write a Review Current Affairs 2018 to 2022 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 1 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 2 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 3 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 4 PYQ 1200 Q/A Part - 5
Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 270Book's First Page
Magadha, although other areas such as Gandhara, Kasi (Varanasi district) and Kausambi (Allahabad district) also provide indications of the evolution of monarchical systems. Archaeological sources The Neolithic settlements point to an earlier population, prior even to the arrival of the Black-and-Red Ware people who probably migrated along the southern route from western and central India. Painted Grey Ware occurs at Sarasvati (Seth-Maheth, a part of Kosala in eastern UP), indicating links with the western Ganga valley, along the northern route as well as at Kausambi and the Ganga Yamuna confluence, indicating settlement along the Vindhyan outcrops. The main culture prior to urbanisation is that of the Black-and-Red Ware pottery, the sites of which seem to follow the route of migration, towards the south and then spread northwards into the middle Ganga valley. They are located along rivers and more frequently near inter-fluvial confluences which were optimum catchment areas. The pottery ranges from crude to refined. If it could be related to Black- and-Red Ware from other areas then its provenance would be western India with an extension eastwards, south of the Yamuna and through central India. Its occurrence in the middle Ganga valley would be later in time and dates to the first half of the first millennium BC. That it is a precondition to urbanisation is sug-gested by the fact that it registers a demographic increase, shows an acquaintance with iron technology in its late phases and provides evidence of early rice cultivation. If ceramic industries can be taken as an indication of cultural variation then the Black-and-Red Ware people were culturally different, although not entirely unrelated to those who dominated the western Ganga valley. The Northern Black Polished Ware dating to about the sixth century BC marks a qualitative change. Its provenance is associated with the areas on both sides of the Ganga between Varanasi and Patna, which was also an area of concentration for the preceding Black-and-Red Ware culture. Northern Black Polished Ware is indicative of a more complex and sophisticated culture with some characteristics of urban living, as the important sites are located at places which, from the literary sources, are known to have been urban centres.