onwards.
Assertion (A): Atharva Veda Samhita is said to be the work of non-Aryans.
Reason (R): Its contents deal with philosophical topics like the Universal
Soul, the Absolute, and the like.
Assertion (A): In the Rig Vedic period the main sources of income for the
tribal chief were bali and spoils of war.
Reason (R): In the Rig Vedic period the tribal chief had immense wealth and
power.
Assertion (A): Iron technology played a crucial role in the expansion of the
Aryans into the middle and lower Gangetic valley.
Reason (R): The middle and lower Gangetic valley had thick vegetation
which could be cleared only by implements of strong metal.
Assertion (A): Sudras emerged as a separate varna only towards the end of
the later Vedic period.
Reason (R): The Purushasukta of the Rig Veda Samhita clearly mentions the
four-fold division of society.
Assertion (A): Asramas or stages of life, meant to regulate the life of the male
members of the higher varnas mainly, came into existence towards the close
of the later Vedic period.
Reason (R): Asramas are mentioned for the first time in the Chandogya
Upanishad.
The word ‘Aryan’ is borrowed from arya in Sanskrit or airyan in Zend, which
means
(a) of white man
(b) of superior man
(c) of good family
(d) of wealthy family
The word varna is used in the Rig Veda with reference only to the colour
difference between
(a) Arya and Oasa
(b) Oasyu and Arya
(c) Brahmin and Kshatriya
(d) Vaishya and Kshatriya