purohita—Brihaspati; senani—Agni; bhagadugha—Pusan; sangrahitri
—Asvins; suta—Varuna; kshata—Savitri; govikartana—Rudra; and gramani
    In both the periods there were no separate officials for administering
justice which was mainly done by the village assemblies. The king did not
possess a standing army due to financial limitations. Instead, tribal units were
mustered in times of war.
Political Transformation
In the Rig Vedic period it was mainly a tribal system of government. In the
later Vedic period a rudimentary system of administration emerged due to the
increasing importance of agriculture and beginning of settled life. Thus, the
political pattern changed from tribal polity to monarchy in most cases and to
republics in the case of a few.
Basis for Social Divisions
Dual Division of Arya and Dasa The economic developments and the
accompanying changing social relationships resulted in a series of contrasting
status stratifications, which were sought to be arranged into a system through
the scheme of varna. The earlier texts speak of an arya-varna and a dasa-
varna, suggesting a dual division. In this dual division of arya and dasa, the
arya was distinguished by wealth and status. The aryas would be those who
either belonged to the senior or to the cadet lineages (rajanyas and the vis) as
well as those who were included in the circuit of prestations and
redistribution, that is, the brahmanas. The dasas were excluded from this
circuit even when they were wealthy enough to bestow gifts on the
Status of Dasas and Dasyus Possibly, the dasas of the Rig Veda were
agricultural communities of the    late-Harappan or post-Harappan cultures of