of prestations were sought to be justified through consecration rituals. The
absolute, secular authority associated with kingship appears to be absent in
these sources and the income from prestations is poured into the rituals and
given to those who perform the rituals. This also led to the greater inter-
dependence of the kshatriya and the brahman, a relationship which is pointed
to in the Satapatha Brahmana. It is said that the brahman was the god Mitra
and therefore, the conceiver and the kshatriya was Varuna, the doer.
Growth of Political Authority The growing importance of political
authority is highlighted in the replacement of the term rajanya by that of
kshatriya. The term rajanya indicated essentially, a status within the lineage.
Kshatra implied temporal authority and power, which was based less on
being a successful leader in battle and more on the tangible power of laying
claim to sovereignty over territory, demanding prestations and also
symbolising ownership over clan lands. Underlying the concept of kshatra is
that of rajya (temporal authority), and this is firmly stated at the time of the
consecration when it is said that the raja has authority over the people, praja.
The raja was in many ways, the economic and political pivot of the lineage
system. He integrated the control over territory with access to available
EMERGENCE OF KINGSHIP
With the gradual concentration of power in the families of chiefs, there
followed other changes which eventually facilitated the emergence of
kingship. It is not easy to locate the point of change, but the tendencies
Election and selection was superseded by attempts at hereditary claims, as
is evident from the genealogies as, for example, that of Sudas. The gradual
emphasis on primogeniture safeguarded succession within the lineage.
Another important concession was the investment of the raja with the
right to punish (danda). This was the necessary concomitant to his being
made responsible for maintenance of law and order.
Notions of divinity associated with the office of the raja guaranteed the
eventual transition to kingship. This restricted eligibility for the status of
raja to families already associated with the office.