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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 203Book's First Page
of prestations were sought to be justified through consecration rituals. The absolute, secular authority associated with kingship appears to be absent in these sources and the income from prestations is poured into the rituals and given to those who perform the rituals. This also led to the greater inter- dependence of the kshatriya and the brahman, a relationship which is pointed to in the Satapatha Brahmana. It is said that the brahman was the god Mitra and therefore, the conceiver and the kshatriya was Varuna, the doer. Growth of Political Authority The growing importance of political authority is highlighted in the replacement of the term rajanya by that of kshatriya. The term rajanya indicated essentially, a status within the lineage. Kshatra implied temporal authority and power, which was based less on being a successful leader in battle and more on the tangible power of laying claim to sovereignty over territory, demanding prestations and also symbolising ownership over clan lands. Underlying the concept of kshatra is that of rajya (temporal authority), and this is firmly stated at the time of the consecration when it is said that the raja has authority over the people, praja. The raja was in many ways, the economic and political pivot of the lineage system. He integrated the control over territory with access to available resources. EMERGENCE OF KINGSHIP With the gradual concentration of power in the families of chiefs, there followed other changes which eventually facilitated the emergence of kingship. It is not easy to locate the point of change, but the tendencies were clear. Election and selection was superseded by attempts at hereditary claims, as is evident from the genealogies as, for example, that of Sudas. The gradual emphasis on primogeniture safeguarded succession within the lineage. Another important concession was the investment of the raja with the right to punish (danda). This was the necessary concomitant to his being made responsible for maintenance of law and order. Notions of divinity associated with the office of the raja guaranteed the eventual transition to kingship. This restricted eligibility for the status of raja to families already associated with the office.