manure was another improvement. Apart from the crops mentioned above,
rice (known as vrihi) was also extensively cultivated now (rice was probably
known to the early Aryans, but not cultivated extensively). The later Vedic
people produced the rainy season crop of rice, called the sastika, which
ripens in sixty days. Though the term plasuka (literally meaning
transplantation) is used in the Satapatha Brahmana, the practice of
transplantation was probably not known to the later Vedic people or at least it
was not practised by them on a large scale. The practice, however, becomes
common from the post-Vedic period onwards. The Satapatha Brahmana
describes the various stages of agriculture such as ploughing, sowing, reaping
and threshing. In addition to barley and rice, several other kinds of grain like
wheat, beans and sesame were cultivated in their due seasons. Individual
property or individual ownership in land for the purpose of cultivation was
recognised. The Taittiriya Samhita has the famous episode of Manu’s
division of property among his sons.
Some of the basic crafts, such as carpentry, metal-working, tanning, weaving,
pottery, and the like, were practised since the Rig Vedic times. The smith,
who produced objects of ayas, was called karmara. There were carpenters
(takshan) who made chariots (rathas), wagons (anas), and boats (nau). There
were also goldsmiths (hiranyakara), potters, grinders of corn, barbers
(vaptri), tanners (charmamna) and physicians.
    Further specialisation took place in the later Vedic period with several
new occupations coming into existence, for instance chariot-makers, dyers,
washermen, hide-dressers, makers of bows and arrows, embroiderers, basket-
makers, fire-rangers, etc. Later Vedic period was also marked by an advance
in metallurgy. This period knows of lead (sisa), tin (trapu), silver (rajata),
gold (hiranya), ayas (copper) and ‘dark’ or syama ayas (iron). Iron was also
known to the people in the Rig Vedic times, but it became common gradually
towards the eight or seventh century BC.
Trade was practised since the