accept the authority of the herder chiefs
Most of the celebrated battles were among the major clans and conflicts
involved claims to territorial control and rights of succession to these
territories. Such references come from the Rig Veda or refer to earlier events
in the later texts and the location of such hostilities was in areas to the north-
west of the Doab and prior to the migration into the Doab. There appears to
have been systematic settlement on the new lands with the indigenous
population either being absorbed, or being pushed to the margins of the
settlements. That land was now recognised as an item of wealth is evident
from its ownership being vested in the clan. The raja Visvakarma Bhauvana,
was rebuked by the earth, Prithvi, when he tried to make a grant of land and it
is also stated that the rajan cannot settle people on land without the consent
of the clans (vis). There is no reference to the sale of land in the Vedic texts.
In the early Vedic period, the Aryans were still dependent mainly on a
pastoral economy, though they practised agriculture, trade and industry to a
limited extent. So, in this period their main occupation was cattle-breeding
(cattle being their main form of wealth). The animals they domesticated were
cattle (for meat, dairy products and agricultural purpose), horse (for drawing
chariots and as mounts in war), sheep and goats (for meat), dog (for hunting,
guarding and tracking cattle and for night watch) and ass (as beast of burden).
Wild animals known were lion, elephant, and bear.