influenced by the Vedic civilisation. It was under the domination of the house
of Ikshavakus. Its early capital, Ayodhya, was later replaced by Sravasti. This
kingdom roughly corresponds to Oudh. Its most famous ruler was Para.
     The famous ruler of Kasi was Ajatsatru. The twenty-third Jaina
tirthankara Parsvanatha, who died 250 years before Mahavira, was the son of
King Asvasena of Kasi.
     Videha, with its capital at Mithila, is identical with modem Tirhut. The
most notable ruler was Janaka, the royal scholar and philosopher of the
Upanishads. His court was adorned by Yajnavalkya.
     Magadha, Anga and Vanga seem to be the eastern most tribes. Magadha
corresponds roughly to southern Bihar. Angas set up their settlements on the
rivers Son and the Ganges. Vangas appear to be the residents of eastern
Bengal. The Magadhas are also associated with the Vratyas. The Yajur Veda
includes Magadha in the list of victims of purushamedha.
     Northern tribes were the Uttarakurus, the Uttaramadras, Gandharis,
Kesins, Kekayas, and Kambojas. In south India there were tribes like
Satvantas, Vidarbhas, Nishadas and Kuntis. Some non-Aryan tribes of the
later Vedic period are referred to in the Aitareya Brahmana which mentions
the Andhras, Pundras, Sabaras, Pulindas and Mutibs.
     The later Vedic texts mention more rivers such as Narmada, Gandak,
Chambal, etc. With regard to the seas, the Satapatha Brahmana mentions the
Eastern and Western Seas (Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea). While Vindhyas
(Southern Mountains) are prominently mentioned, places like Kampila
(modem Kampil in western UP), Panchakra (a Panchala town near Kampil),
Kosala (in eastern UP), Videha (in northern Bihar), etc. are also highlighted.
     The texts also have references to the territorial divisions of India. The
three later Vedas give three broad divisions of India, viz. Aryavarta (northern
India), Madhyadesa (central India), and Dakshinapatha (southern India). But
Aitareya Brahmana divides the whole country into five parts, viz. (a) eastern,
(b) western, (c) northern, (d) central and (e) southern.