)                            BC)
   Economy       Pastoralism (Migratory)                  Agrarian (Settled)
     Polity         Tribal Democracy                Hereditary Monarchy (90%)
                Role of Sabha and Samiti Ganarajyas or Republics (10%
                 Units: Kula-Grama-Vis-                  Janapada or Rashtra
                            Jana
    Society Egalitarian – Occupational                Birth-based Chatur-varna
               Division Rajanya-Brahmin- system Brahmin-Kshatriya-
                            Vis                             Vaishya-Sudra
   Religion       Henotheism (Pluraity            Continuation of 33 Divinities,
                  without hierarchy–33             but imp. to Prajapati, Vishnu
                 Divinities) Importance of            and Rudra Ritualism and
                  Indra, Agni and Soma               priest-dominance Revolt in
                  Prayers and Voluntary              Aranyakas and Upnishads)
                         offerings
Rigvedic Phase
Geographical Knowledge The geographical distribution of the people
referred to in the Rig Veda covers the sapta sindhu region, literally the region
of the Indus and its tributaries. This lay in the area from eastern Afghanistan
to the Indo-Gangetic watershed and the fringes of the Doab. Attempts have
been made to try and define the geography of the Vedic texts on the basis of
references to places, peoples, geographical features and dialects. This is a
difficult exercise as changes in some river courses have been frequent and
would have altered boundaries and topographical features over time and
would affect attempts to identify people with present-day place names.
Economy The Rigvedic economy was primarily pastoral, but it was
familiar with agriculture. Wealth was primarily computed in heads of cattle
as well as horses (regarded as more valuable but less easy to obtain) and
chariots, gold and slave girls, as is evident from the dana-stuti hymns in
praise of gift-giving. Cattle being the main wealth, cattle raids were a major
form of increasing wealth apart from breeding cattle. This is common to
many cattle-keeping societies. The banks of the Sarasvati are described as
rich in pastures, but possibly with hydrological changes, there was a