Richard Meadow, who has made a thorough study of the remains, argues
 that until 2000 BC there is no clear osteological evidence of the presence of
 the horse in the Indian subcontinent. In his opinion, the Pirak complex in
 Baluchistan provides the earliest evidence for the existence of the true
 horse in South Asia, and this may not be earlier than the seventeenth
 century BC.
 The life of the Indo-Europeans was horse-centred, but this does not apply
 to the mature Harappan culture.The presence of the horse in the Kachi
 plains of Baluchistan can be linked to that in Surkotada, where its bones
 have been reported from the lowest strata belonging to about 2100 to 1700
 BC. The Surkotada horse may have been contemporaneous with the Pirak
 Bhagawanpura, situated in Kurukshetra district, has revealed a culture in
 which the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) phase overlaps with the late
 Harappan phase. Horse bones have been found in layers belonging to this
 overlap culture dated to 1300–1200 BC. Horse bones also appear in the
 PGW stratum of Hastinapur around the middle of the first millennium BC.
 Several places in northern India reveal terracotta figurines of horses and
 bulls in the layers of the PGW phase. There is no doubt that the use of the
 horse and chariot contributed to the spread of the Aryans.
 Wheeled wagons appear in the Harappan culture from about 2500 BC, but
 there is no indication of the use of spoked wheels by the Harappans.
 However, spokes are depicted on the wheel of a toy vehicle. Spokes or
 similar designs painted on a terracotta wheel from Dholavira belong to
 Phase 5 or late Harappan times. The spokes probably appeared in the
 Harappan culture when it came into contact with the Vedic people.
Significance of the Use of the Horse The advent of the domesticated horse
marked a watershed in the history of humankind. It transformed modes of
subsistence, transport and warfare. Excavations in the area from the Black
Sea to the Caspian Sea show that horseflesh was used on a large scale.
Further, horse riding enabled the people to hunt in a large area and made
hunting far more effective. Hence, the horse itself served as source of food
and also enlarged other sources