earlier period, but does not disappear.
  • Agriculture remains firmly entrenched, as in the earlier period,
      and, if anything, may have even expanded its scope.
  • The number of late Harappan sites in Gujarat, as elsewhere, is
      considerably more than the number of mature Harappan sites.
  • In Gujarat at least, the tradition of foreign trade continues; the
      discovery of a seal with a motif (‘whorl’ motif) common in the
      Gulf, at Bet Dwaraka and the finds of Indus and Indus-related
      seals at Nippur and in Failaka are proof enough of this continuity
      of the mature Harappan tradition of external trade.
  • Evidence of Decline and Shift of Settlements At the same
      time, there is a marked overall element of decline. The
      archaeological repertoire becomes much simpler; the use of script
      becomes very limited, and there was much less use of raw
      materials transported over long distances. While trying to explain
      this decline, one has to point out a major feature of the distribution
      of late Harappan sites between the Sutlej and the Yamuna. There
      was a remarkable shift of the focus of settlements towards the
      Doab during this period.
• We do not really know why this shift took place, but the increased
  pace of the drying up of the Ghaggar–Hakra system seems to have
  been one reason.
• Another reason may have been the fact that the Harappans
  overstretched themselves. Their foundations in many areas of their
  distribution were not particularly deep. In Cholistan and some parts of
  Sind, West Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat, they had an ancestry going
  back either to the Hakra ware period or the early phase of the early
• One has to admit that the Harappans eventually came to be rather
  thinly stretched on the ground, and the weakening of their political
  fabric was almost inevitable. They were swallowed up, as it were, by
  the much less advanced pre-agricultural groups of inner India.
• Once the Harappans moved and settled in the upper part of the Doab,
  they were geographically bound to be drawn into the main cultural
  development of the Ganga     valley.