There is enough evidence to suggest the presence of specialised groups of
artisans such as bronzesmiths, goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutters,
weavers (of both cotton and wool cloth), boat-builders, terracotta
manufacturers, and others. Some of these crafts such as brick making must
have been state-controlled crafts.
    Nearly all the basic tool types—flat axes, chisels, knives, spearheads and
arrowheads, small saws, and the like—could have been made by simple
casting, and or chiselling and hammering.
    Bronze appears to have been present from the lowest levels at
Mohenjodaro, but it is noticeably more common in the upper levels. The
splendid copper and bronze vessels are among the outstanding examples of
the Harappan metal workers’ craft. Such special objects as the cast bronze
figures of people or animals, or the little model carts for which identical
examples come from Harappa and Chanhudaro were the products of
specialists’ workshops.
    Panning or washing of gold dust were probably the principal means
employed to obtain gold. Objects of gold are reasonably common, though by
no means prolific. Gold occurs in the form of beads, pendants, amulets,
brooches, needles, and other small personal ornaments.
    Silver makes its earliest appearance in India to date in the Indus
civilisation. That it was relatively more common than gold is indicated by the
number of large vessels made of silver, and by the frequency of other finds.
    The Indus cities also provide testimony that lead was imported in ingot
form, and occasionally used for manufacturing objects such as vases.
    In spite of the common use of metals, stone was not abandoned, and chert
blades, supplied from great factories such as that it Sukkur, were prepared at
the settlements. From the limestone hills at Rehri and Sukkur came nodules
of fine flint and finished flint blades which were worked at vast factory sites
nearby. Thence they were imported by river, wherever possible, to form a
uniform item of equipment at Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Rangpur, Kot
Diji and Kalibangan.
    Balakot of Baluchistan, Lothal and Chanhudaro were centres for shell-
working and bangle-making; Lothal and Chanhudaro were also centres for
the manufacture of beads of cernelian, and the like.
    Mature Harappan pottery represents a blend of the ceramic traditions of