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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 97Book's First Page
The hills of south Baluchistan do not seem to contain evidence of distinct Harappan settlements. But Dabarkot in north Baluchistan seems to possess a distinct Harappan level. Considering the accessibility of Afghanistan from this area, Dabarkot may be a trading or resource-procuring settlement. Afghanistan The mature Harappan settlement of Shortughai in north-east Afghanistan is a small (2.5 ha) and isolated site believed to have been a trading colony. Trade in this context could be based, on the Harappan side, on the lapis lazuli and rubies of Badakhshan and tin of central Asia and Afghanistan. Generalisations On the whole, it is clearly indicated that the basic character of the Indus settlements was conditioned by factors such as local agricultural geography, distribution of raw materials and the alignment of inland trade routes. The Indus civilisation covered not merely a large geographical territory but also a large segment of time. It began in the Cholistan tract on the bank of the Ghaggar-Hakra course. A short time after this took place, the civilisation spread across the Hakra-Indus doab towards Mohenjodaro and other places in Sind. Radiocarbon evidence indicates that this expansion, as also the expansion towards Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab, took place after the phase of expansion towards the lower Sind, sometime around 2500 BC. Along with the movement towards the lower Sind there was in all probability another movement towards Kutch which was then likely to have been an island and lay virtually at the mouth of the combined Hakra-Indus flow. In fact, if one takes into consideration the Rajasthan-Punjab-Haryana sites, the distribution of the Indus civilisation sites shows the most dense concentration along the Ghaggar-Hakra course at three points—in Cholistan, along the Sirhind nala which is a part of the Ghaggar-Sarasvati system in the Bhatinda area, and in Kutch in the estuary of the combined Ghaggar/Hakra- Indus flow. The movement towards the Saurashtra peninsula and mainland Gujarat took place from Kutch, possibly in a somewhat later period.