Gujarat
The Harappan settlements in Kutch constituted a fullblown culture and lived
almost a full life before their culture declined and fragmented causing large
scale migration from Kutch to the hinterland of Gujarat and perhaps also to
Saurashtra. Further, the Harappan sites in Kutch were unlikely to have been
based only on agriculture, because Kutch is by no means agriculturally
prosperous. But at the same time Kutch has potential for the cultivation of
cotton and possesses in any case good grazing land. It could also be an area
of resource procurement, in addition to being a major area of animal breeding
and cotton cultivation. For instance, at Khandaria there is sufficient evidence
of the extraction of chert, carnelian, agate and jasper.
    Although they are semi-arid areas like Kutch, both the Saurashtra
peninsula and mainland Gujarat have a much better soil cover and more
flowing streams, in addition to having a better rainfall and some major raw
materials—semi-precious stones, marine shells, copper, steatite, ivory,
amazonite, gold, different types of ordinary stones, etc. Besides, Gujarat has
good potential for the cultivation of cotton. In both, the Saurashtra peninsula
and mainland Gujarat cattlefarming was a major component of the Harappan
economy. That some of the Harappan sites in the region were geared to the
procurement of raw materials has been documented at such sites as
Nageshwar which was apparently devoted to the collection of those varieties
of shell which were used for bangles, conch-shells, etc. Another site,
Nagwada, is believed to have been a major manufacturing centre of
semiprecious stone objects.
Makran Coast
The three Harappan sites on the Makran coast—Sutkagendor, Sotka-koh and
Khairia Kot—have been generally considered to have been ports in the
maritime links with the Gulf and Mesopotamia, and with the discovery of an
Omani sherd at Sutkagendor the hypothesis has gained strength. At the same
time, this may not have been the only or the primary function of these
settlements.