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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 95Book's First Page
The average size of settlements here was not more than a few acres, going up to about 40 acres and 60 acres respectively for Banawali and Rakhigarhi. But a great complexity has been added to the Harappan distribution situation in this region by the report of twenty-one sites in an area of approximately 50 × 25 km. Five of these sites, all with ‘pre-Harappan and Mature Harappan’ pottery, are Dhalewan, Gurni Kalan, Hasanpur, Baglian Da Theh and Lakhmirwala. These sites are said to be situated at a distance of 3 to 5 km from each other. Besides, they were regular and massive settlements, with the first four of them being in the category of Harappa and the last one being as large as Mohenjodaro. Harappa was undoubtedly a major manufacturing centre, for there is sufficient evidence of the use of several raw materials. As far as the sites in the Siwalik piedmont of Punjab are concerned, Kotla Nihang Khan near Ropar measures about 2.60 hectares (ha). Large sites are absent in the Doab region, their average size being about 3 ha. These sites mostly occupy the small tributary valleys of the Yamuna in Saharanpur and Meerut districts. Sind The Harappan sites in Sind Kohistan and the Kirthar piedmont are generally near the local perennial springs and probably served the dual purpose of agriculture and resource procurement. Located in the Larkana area of Sind, Mohenjodaro undoubtedly enjoys an agricultural advantage, but it also served as the main mercantile centre in relation to the overland trade stretching across to Iran and Central Asia. An old trade route went north from Karachi to Thano Bula Khan and entered the Larkana district of today. This route was undoubtedly significant considering the cluster of sites all along it from Ahladino, Amri, Ghazi Shah, Ali Murad and Lohumjodaro to Mohenjodaro in the Larkana district. In fact, the special craft-activity areas of Mohenjodaro hint at the possibility of its role as a manufacturing and redistribution centre linked to both caravan trade in the western regions and riverine trade with other inland areas. In terms of its expanse Mohenjodaro, about 240–250 acres (latest estimate is 500 acres), is about three times the size of the nearest large Harappan settlement in Sind, which is Naru Waro Dharo (roughly 86 acres).