The average size of settlements here was not more than a few acres, going
up to about 40 acres and 60 acres respectively for Banawali and Rakhigarhi.
But a great complexity has been added to the Harappan distribution situation
in this region by the report of twenty-one sites in an area of approximately 50
× 25 km. Five of these sites, all with ‘pre-Harappan and Mature Harappan’
pottery, are Dhalewan, Gurni Kalan, Hasanpur, Baglian Da Theh and
Lakhmirwala. These sites are said to be situated at a distance of 3 to 5 km
from each other. Besides, they were regular and massive settlements, with the
first four of them being in the category of Harappa and the last one being as
large as Mohenjodaro.
Harappa was undoubtedly a major manufacturing centre, for there is
sufficient evidence of the use of several raw materials. As far as the sites in
the Siwalik piedmont of Punjab are concerned, Kotla Nihang Khan near
Ropar measures about 2.60 hectares (ha). Large sites are absent in the Doab
region, their average size being about 3 ha. These sites mostly occupy the
small tributary valleys of the Yamuna in Saharanpur and Meerut districts.
The Harappan sites in Sind Kohistan and the Kirthar piedmont are generally
near the local perennial springs and probably served the dual purpose of
agriculture and resource procurement.
Located in the Larkana area of Sind, Mohenjodaro undoubtedly enjoys an
agricultural advantage, but it also served as the main mercantile centre in
relation to the overland trade stretching across to Iran and Central Asia. An
old trade route went north from Karachi to Thano Bula Khan and entered the
Larkana district of today. This route was undoubtedly significant considering
the cluster of sites all along it from Ahladino, Amri, Ghazi Shah, Ali Murad
and Lohumjodaro to Mohenjodaro in the Larkana district. In fact, the special
craft-activity areas of Mohenjodaro hint at the possibility of its role as a
manufacturing and redistribution centre linked to both caravan trade in the
western regions and riverine trade with other inland areas.
In terms of its expanse Mohenjodaro, about 240–250 acres (latest
estimate is 500 acres), is about three times the size of the nearest large
Harappan settlement in Sind, which is Naru Waro Dharo (roughly 86 acres).