Cholistan desert thus lies to
Regarding the Ghaggar system, the following points may be noted:
The ancient Ghaggar bed seems to bifurcate and both the channels come to
an abrupt end. These two terminal channels of the Ghaggar seem to
disappear into a depression. There is no indication of any palaeochannel
connecting the ancient Ghaggar with the Indus or the Luni rivers.
The palaeochannels of the ancient Yamuna show that it changed its course
three times in the past. The first channel flowed into the old bed of the
Ghaggar; the second channel flowed through a channel which includes the
present day Chautang (ancient Drishadvati) and met the Ghaggar, and the
third time it went southward and joined the Ganga through the Chambal.
To conclude, the Ghaggar is basically a descendant of the original
Sarasvati. Due to neotectonic upheavals, its two main tributaries—the
Palaeo-Sutlej and the Palaeo-Yamuna—were pirated by the Indus and the
Ganga respectively, leaving the Sarasvati (the present day Ghaggar) high
and dry. This drying up of the major river of the Indo-Ganga divide, had
catastrophic consequences for the human settlements, as can be seen by
the early Man’s constant pursuit of the changing courses of these channels.
the south and east of the Hakra depression. The lower course of the Hakra
joins the Indus and flows into, or in the vicinity of the Rann of Kutch. On the
Indian side the river is known as the Ghaggar and is identified with Sarasvati
of early literature.
In Cholistan or Bahawalpur, out of a total of 414 sites discovered along
300 miles of the Hakra river bed, 174 are Mature Harappan. Areas
exclusively earmarked for kilns and other mass production activities are
recognized at 79 sites. Some of these sites were involved in copper smelting.
Rajasthan copper must have been among the primary metals smelted in this
area. Towards the Indian border in the east, the distribution of the mature
Harappan sites is distinctly thinner, and thus the mature Harappan sites in
Rajasthan and beyond may be considered to belong to a separate distribution
Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab
Beyond Cholistan the Harappan sites spread out, first comparatively thinly