here, which was probably an ink pot. But
makers’ and bead-makers’ shops (Metals used were gold, silver, tin, copper,
Kalibangan It is one of the two Indus cities which have both proto-
Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. In its proto-Harappan phase the
fields were ploughed. But in the Harappan phase, they were not ploughed, but
Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and
the lower town have been discovered here.
Archaeologists discovered two platforms (within the citadel) with fire
altars suggesting the practice of the cult of sacrifice.
Lothal It was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. It must
have served as the main seaport of the Indus people.
It was nearly rectangular, with the longer axis running from north to
south. It was surrounded by a massive brick wall, probably as flood
Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). The only
other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad.
Metal-workers’, shell-ornament makers’ and beadmaker’s shops have
been discovered here also.
Fire altars, indicating the probable existence of a fire cult, have been
Evidence for the use of horse comes from a doubtful terracotta figurine of
Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealings found here
(impressions of cloth on a trough come from another site, Alamgirpur).
Banawali It has evidence of having both protoHarappan and Harappan
It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities, such as town
planning, grid system, drainage system, and the like.
Surkotada It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have
actually been found.
It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at
the corners and in the longer sides.
It must have been another